University of Texas
Diary of Conrad L. B. Shuddemagen (age 15-16)
(May 1, 1895–December 7, 1895)
Chatfield, Texas (later changed to Knippa, Texas)



Conrad L. B. Shuddemagen,
ca 1892-93
Closest Picture to Age in Diary, about 14 here.

Conrad L. B. Shuddemagen,
ca 1899-1900
Age 20-21.
with Walter, approx. age 4

Dry Frio River

Sabinal River

Chatfield, Texas, May 20, 1895
Conrad’s Daybook

Guide to abbreviations and people in the diary:
C.= Conrad Shuddemagen, age 16
Rev C. = Reverend George Czerkus
P. = Papa, John Shuddemagen, Father, age 43
M. = Mama, Anna Shuddemagen, Mother, age 38
L. = Lilly, Sister, age 12 (Conrad’s spelling.)
H. = Henry, Brother, age 10
A. = Alma, Sister, age 7
L. = Louis, Brother, age 5
L. = Louise, Sister, age 5
E. = Emil, Brother, age 2
W. = Walter, Brother, age 1
Albert Kessler, Father, age 40
Mary Kessler, Mother, age 32
C. Kessler, Charley, age 14
L. Kessler, Lawrence, age 11
O. Kessler, Oscar, age 9
G.Kessler, George, age 4
S. Kessler, unknown
C. Umlang, Charley, age 12
O. Umlang, Otto, age 9
Fuchs, Annie, age 56, may be widowed
Fuchs, Fred, age 31, son




The work performed by such young children in this diary is startling by today’s standards. Map at right is of the area. The Shuddemagen farm in the diary was near Knippa, which is on Highway 90 between Uvalde and Sabinal. The town was called Chatfield during this period. Families had moved to the area to profit from the rains in the Frio River Valley, sadly the early 1890s were plagued by drought. This is the period of the diary. The Shuddemagen’s lost this farm through shady manipulations, apparently to capitalize on the improvements that had been made by the Shuddemagens. In 1898, following their eviction, they bought a “shoestring” strip of land south of Sabinal. The ranch remains in the family today, operated by Gerry and Janelle Shudde, son of Emil Shudde, Conrad’s brother.

Conrad’s grammar and spelling are exceptional. I chose to change only a few words to facilitate reading. As the diary progressed he began to rely on abbreviation to reduce writing. I have sometime chosen to write those words out. There are words I can’t make out and words that refer to things I am not familiar with. I have supplied words that appear obvious. In other cases question marks are often inserted. My comments and clarifications are in italics. I would greatly appreciate any suggestions or corrections. I hope members of the family, especially Gerry Shudde can provide clarifications.

Diary Begins:

2 of May. Monday: As I am back in Uvalde County now, I will write a daybook. I had been gone for 6 months (school months) to the High-School at Gonzales. While there I stayed at Uncle Dr. Fouts’.(Pictured at right with his wife Marie, Conrad’s mother’s sister). I was put in the 5th Grade, Laura Reese, Teacher. Here I stayed for 2 months. In the first month I ranked second in my Grade. In the second month I ranked first. Cecil O’Banion and David Stahl were my chief competitors.
On the intermediate examination I ranked first and got the term. Then, on the request of Dr. Fouts, I was sent to the 6th Grade, Rozelle Nicholson, Teacher. Here I found hard work for our teacher was strict. She has taught in that school for about 8 years in succession, and knew how to manage a schoolroom full of children.








May 2

Here we studied Music, Algebra, Civil Government, Arithmetic, Grammar, Drawing, History and Writing. We had to bring some news every alternate Friday morning. I was in the sixth grade 4 months. I led the Sixth for all the time I was there. Frances Botts, who had led it before, and Ethel Rather were close.
This school was well managed, that is the teaching department. But they might need to have an efficient spanking department for the boys.
As school continued for 1 month longer, I did not participate in the closing of the school and examination.
I had sold $25-$30 worth of honey in the Gonzales and when I stopped school, I took the Aransas for Graham and visited Uncle Henry & Aunt Clara (Franke).

In Yoakum I sold $3.65 worth of honey. Precious little!! I do not like Yoakum very much. The houses are neat, but the streets are zigzag crooked and there are no sidewalks. The houses are standing so irregular that it is harder & hard to find a certain house.
I, then, went back to Gonzales. I sold ½ gal. cans of comb honey before I reached Dr’s house. Then I packed my trunk and, after saying goodby, I took the Sunset Express for San Antonio.

(Before the start of Amtrak on May 1, 1971, the Sunset Limited was operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad. The Sunset Limited is the oldest named train in the United States, operating since November 1894 (though originally named the Sunset Express). The Sunset Limited was Southern Pacific's premier train. Initially the Sunset Limited was an all-Pullman train, with sleeping cars and no coaches, running from New Orleans to San Francisco via Los Angeles. From its beginning in 1894 until streamlining in 1950, all the train's cars had 6-wheel trucks and dark olive green paint with black roofs and trucks.

An 1895 train included:
A 4-4-0 American steam locomotive
Composite Baggage car with barber shop, bath and buffet smoker lounge El Indio
7 Drawing Room Sleeper with ladies´ parlor lounge El Piloto
10 Section 2 Drawing Room Sleeper El Dorado
Dining Car Gourmet
6 Section 1 Drawing Room 3 Compartment Sleeper Cliola
14 Section 1 Drawing Room Sleeper Los Angeles-From Wikipedia)

Sweet little Martin! I wish I could see him soon. (Martin was son of Dr. & Mrs. Fouts, b. 1894)
When I came to San Antonio, I went to 324 Chestnut Street to find Mackenson’s. But they had moved to 111 Ogden Street, about 1 mile from the Depot. A man went with me to the Post Office, where I took the San Red car (probably a street car.) to Macon St. where by directions I was to find Ogden St. by going eastward. But it ought to have been Maple St. where I could have found Ogden. Ogden St. does not intersect Macon St.
So I nearly lost myself and was almost on the point of going back to some hotel, when, asking a young man for the street that I could not find, he went with me to find No. 111, which we did.



2 of May. Tuesday: I slept at Markensons that night and next morning I went down Main Avenue to buy some things and then take the 9:45 train for Chatfield. Erich P. and Mrs. M. went with me. I bought 46 bananas for $ .50 and 1 autoharp string, $ .10, and woolens, $1.
At last we got to the depot and I boarded a train. We had a fine ride and arrived in Chatfield on due time.
Then I took my baggage and tramped homewards. We got my trunk with the wagon, afterwards… The bananas were soon gone.

This morning I took Billy and got the other horses from the pasture. Then I and Louis drove to Uvalde and also to Mr. Mackey’s, 2 miles south of Uvalde. We brought the dipping-milling outfit to Mr. Mackey. As we came home we drove to our Lower Apiary and loaded a number of bottomboards. We just came home on time, for clouds had been chasing each other all day long, and a crashing rain set in just after we got home. Until now it has rained (all the time) about .5 inches and still it is raining. I expect to hear of the Frio tomorrow. 22 May. ……..Yes I did……Catclaw (a shrub) is blasted now. It has stood several little showers but this will be too much. Papa and Henry extracted a little honey. Mr. John Knippa came this afternoon and talked for a long time. (John Knippa was a brother of George Knippa, founder of Chatfield.)

(Continued next evening)

This morning we had an inch of rain. Then I and Alma planted a line of Bermuda grass from here to the Frio (River). After dinner, Herman Knippa came and talked with Papa for a long time.(Herman Knippa was a brother of George Knippa, founder of Chatfield.)
Then we extracted honey, about 1 case pure catclaw. (Cat Claw is a native desert shrub which has beautiful flowers(at right) in the spring. Honey bees are drawn to and make a uniquely-flavored honey. Catclaw honey is white to light amber in color, very heavy, with a rich mild flavor, and is regarded by the native Texans as one of the finest honeys in the world-MO)
Lilly broke one frame and got a scolding. We extracted 2 gallons from my Frio Bridge hive. 1 swarm caught. Weather fine. We have put about 40 lbs 2nd class honey with some water on the fire to be heated. We want to make “Honey wine”. I wonder if it will succeed. It is late.

22 of May. Wednesday: It rained about 5 inch last night. As soon as I got up, I ran down to the river, and saw it flowing.
It was about 10 feet deep. Now it is about 6 feet deep. It had slackened down quick, but then it flowed evenly.
We extracted 18 gal. catclaw honey and caught one swarm. Weather; cloudy, a few drops of rain.

23 of May. Thursday: The river is still flowing. It is now about 3 feet deep.
We shoveled a part of the cowpen clean for the cows this morning. Then Lilly and I went to patch-up the honey house. While there a fox ran by only a few steps from us. We stuffed a box’s cracks with cotton and made a boat of it. It does seem to be all right.
After dinner we extracted about 8 gal. Mrs. Umlang and Otto were here this afternoon and we boys swam in the Frio and played tops. Knappeck brought Ali back. I milked 7 cows. Lilly 2. Weather; fine, hardly any sunshine, cool.

24 of May. Friday: This morning we grubbed wild potatoes and planted Bermuda grass.
We ran around the Frio a good deal, but did not catch any fish. The Frio is still flowing strong, about 2 feet deep.

Shuddemagen beehives after move from Chatfield, ca 1898-99. L to R. Emil, John (tool? & honeycomb), Henry, Anna, Louis, Louise, Walter (with crossbow), Alma and Lily. Highly likely these are the hive boxes referred to in the diary.

We extracted some 8 gallons of honey and caught one swarm. In the afternoon I shot at a muley (jackrabbit), but did not hit him. I got Max in the pasture and drove Ali and Billy home. Then I took Ali and got the cows, of which I milked 6. Lilly 2, Ma 1. Weather; fine, cool, cloudy. I will drive to Sabinal tomorrow.

25 of May. Saturday: This morning right after breakfast, I, Lilly and Emil drove to Sabinal. The road was very muddy and boggy. Just before we came to Sabinal, George Kessler overtook us in a gig. We bought 4 glasses, 1 foot(?). fly paper, June-corn and meat. On the west bound passenger train(?) there were, bound for Chatfield, Mr. Knippa, Mr. H. Kessler, Rev. Czerkus (George Czerkus of Medina) and Nettie Kessler.
Papa and Henry extracted 10 gal and caught 1 swarm. Rev. Czerkus and Mr. Umlang came by here on the gig and Rev. C. paid for 1 case honey for Mrs. Bochle. We swam in the Frio. Weather; fine, cloudy morning, sunny afternoon, warm.

26 of May. Sunday: There was a service held at Umlang’s today by Rev. G. Czerkus. A good many were there, but not many Chatfielders. Mr. Rünkus little baby was christened there. This morning there were married in Chatfield at Mr. John Knippa’s, Mr. Herm. Dickey and Miss Emma Knippa (Emma Knippa was a sister of George, John & Herman Knippa.)
, Rev. Czerkus performed the ceremony. The Frio stopped flowing yesterday morning. Kessler’s boys and I went to swim in the river twice. Mama milked 2 cows, Lilly 4 and I 2. The Cat made that blot. (Conrad is referring to a black mark on this page in the diary.) Weather: fine, sunny, almost too hot.

27 of May, Monday: Mr. Knappeck (more likely Knapick) came this morning with a Mexican to fix the new fence. Henry and I caught about 6 lbs of good fish in some holes. We extracted about 15 gal. of honey today. Rev. Czerkus left by train. 2 Mexicans came this afternoon and wanted “travacho” (work). I milked 6 cows, and Lilly 2. Then Papa, Henry and I went to swim in the river. Weather, hot, few clouds, windy.

28 of May. Tuesday: Alma and I drove to Sabinal. I had got about 6 lbs of fish.

29 of May. Wednesday: I am sick. We extracted about 5 gal. I milked 4 cows, Mama and Lilly 5.

30 of May. Thursday: Knappeck and Nuavo left today; they had finished the fence. Knappeck gets $8 for making it. No good fish. Lina Fuchs and Bernhard Romberg were here today. I killed one muley (jackrabbbit) this evening and missed another one. I had shot 4 times.
Lilly milked 2, Henry 2 and I 4 cows.

31 of May. Friday: We had two teams working. Papa ploughed (plowed) and Henry and I hauled 4 or 5 loads of stumps from the field. Then Lilly and Henry burned brush. Poor frog!
I milked most of the cows.

1 of June. Saturday: Papa ploughed and Henry hauled 2 loads of stumps, while I grubbed bushes. I ploughed (plowed) 3 rounds and milked 8 cows, Lilly one.

2 of June. Sunday: All of us except Henry and I drove to Mr. Douglass and his brother to talk about cows. They came late. Oscar Kessler was here this afternoon and we went swimming, played tops and caught 2 swarms of bees. We had Irish potatoes and peas for dinner. Lilly milked 2, Henry 2 and I 6 cows.

3 of June. Monday: Henry and I drove to Sabinal. The flour from R. Bros. was not there. We bought 4 bushels of sugar cane seed at Peters Bros. Papa ploughed in the Milo-maize. I milked 4, Lilly 3 and Henry 2 cows. (Milo maize: small drought-resistant sorghum having large yellow or whitish grains used for silage. Picture included at right.)

4 of June. Tuesday: We extracted 17 gallons of honey. I shot at doves. 1 shot 2 doves, 2nd shot none, 3rd shot, 1,……………. I shot 10 doves – all with shotgun. ……(All done) with 5 shots. Good Weather, hot.

5 of June. Wednesday: Extracted about 7 gallons. …. doves with 1 shotgun shot. Soup for supper. Pussy had a little heifer calf yesterday Mex… got 2 doz. eggs. Took out unfertile eggs from inc. (incubator) and put in 33 new ones. Mama milked 1, L. 2, and I 6 cows. Weather, hot.

6 of June. Thursday: Ext. ab. 5 gal. and took out 4 boxes of comb honey. Shot a skunk with two shots of dove shot. She will not tackle the hen roost any more. Could not catch Billy in the morning. Henry is sick. Mama milked 1, Lilly 3 and I 5 cows. Doctored Grace bull (Grace’s bull, Grace was cow). Weather, hot, a little windy.

7 of June. Friday: Lilly burned bush and I plowed land. Henry nailed frames. I did not milk any cows because I was tired. Bulls broke the fence twice. Weather, hot, a little wind.

8 of June. Saturday: Henry held the reins and I the plow. We made 17 rounds. Lilly burned bush and put stumps in the wagon. One swarm. Pa ploughed the milomaize. I milked 1 cow. Weather, hot, then a storm came.

9 of June. Sunday: Papa rode to Sabinal on Billy. Had a rain at about 2 o’clock, about 1 inch. Free frog concert this evening, everybody invited to attend. One swarm. I milked 6, Lilly 2 and Henry 1 cows. Weather, cool cloudy and rain.

10 of June. Monday: Alma and I drove to Sabinol and got the flour barrel, which was at the depot. Papa plowed. 3 cows were “sucked out” by the calves. We had a long hunt for Billy in the hay pasture, I have just found him. Weather, cool, cloudy and showery.

11 of June. Tuesday: Henry and I plowed. 22 rounds, that finished the unbroken land which we wanted to plant in June corn. Lilly and Alma planted potatoes. Papa drove to Knippa’s. I milked 1 cow. Tera had a little bull. Weather, hot, no wind.

12 of June. Wednesday: Lilly, Henry and I (Number of Pages Missing)

4 of August. Sunday: L H and I rode to Frio Apiary and picked 3 gallons of persimmons. I ran up to the sorghum patch and saw a muley rabbit. I shot at him and he kicked a little. Biggest and loudest bang. 8. hot, little warm.

5 of August. Monday: I raked half of the sorghum. We threshed Cane seed. 2/8. cool. .1 inch rain. Thunder and Lightning.

6 of August. Tuesday: I raked the rest of the sorghum and the weeds in the field. P & H chopped June Corn. W. (weather) looks as if it will rain, cloudy & cool.

7 of August. Wednesday: P, H and I sowed and plowed in 2 bushels of sorghum seed. Wednesday was cloudy & cool, threatening rain all day. In the evening a horseshoe of rain clouds half-circled in on Chatfield from the South. Now it is raining strong, already 2 inches.

8 of August, Thursday: The weather is rainy; it rained about 2 inches. We did not do much. 2/8 W. cool.

9 of August, Friday: I rode to Sabinal on Billy. The first inst. of “The Hidden Mine” has come. The “World” (magazine) will now be “Thrice bi-weekly”. P & H began digging a “dug-out”. 2/8. W. cool and cloudy.

10 of August, Saturday: We dug on the “storm-cellar” a little more. M & I cleaned some sorghum seed. (This means removing the trash matter, probably with a screen.) I put some cyanite of pot. (potassium, a poison) in 10 ant-holes. P & H drove to the Frio Bridge and hauled a load of ties. I got the cows from the pasture. 3/8. W. cool & cloudy.

11 of August. Sunday: C. Kessler came over this morning with 2 kavajos (maybe Navajos.). Then I rode with him to Kessler’s hay-camp and helped load up 45 bales. After dinner I rode on Max to Kesslers and we played rook. 4/8. W. warm and no wind. Empty trough.

12 of August. Monday: P, H and I sowed and covered up some sorghum seed. 4/8. W. hot and little wind.

13 of August, Tuesday: P, H and I plowed in some sorghum seed. I cleaned 1 bushel seed on the 14th. 12 cows. 1895. Calves names: Belle (cow), Macco (calf); Kate, Campos; Zera, Mar…; Snowbelle, Gomez; Llola, Lula; Amy, Quesada; Elvira, Perez; Lida, Leonie; Whiteback, Liliriokalam; Kitty 2nd, Pussy 2nd; Poor Daisy’s calf died; Pussy 1st and her heifer calf were sent to Mr. Douglass. $50.

14 of August. Wednesday: P H and I plowed in sorghum. Yesterday P and I drove to Chatfield and sold $.90 worth of CP (canned peaches?). Every time we going to the field to plow we take the wagon along and haul 1 or 2 shocks of corn back for horses and cattle.

15th. Thursday: Alma & I drove to Sabinal. P and H plowed in s&s. (sorghum seed) W. for last 3 days, hot and not much rained. 3/8

16th. Friday: I packed 1 case of 10 1gal. cans. In the afternoon it rained a little. W. cool & cloudy.

17th. Saturday: Louis & I drove to Sabinal. Shipped 1 case of 10 1gal. cans to S.S. Allen Hot Springs Ark. c/o Hotel Worrell. W. warm.

18th. Sunday: Rev. Czerkus came in his gig this morning. He had not found the way here yesterday and had to camp in the brush. H L A and I and the Pastor went to Kesslers where they had a grand dinner for nearly all the Chatfielders. At 2.30 Pastor Czerkus offered service in our house. Walter John Schuddemagen and Arthur Hermann Kessler were christened.
Brandis Olivares bought 9.5 cents CP and Manuel Samani bought 40 cents honey, both on credit. The weather looks threatening. Lightning & clouds.

19th. Monday: We planted and mulched some potatoes. A & I drove to Chatfield. $1.30 Pastor C. got $1.50. W. rain in the night. warm.

20th. Tuesday: We cut milomaized seed. W. warm.

21 Wednesday: We cut milomaize seed. L, L, E and I drove to Chatfield and sold $.95 milk. At noon I drove there with Alma, Louis and Louise. Sold $.40 cents melons and $.50 4 ground squirrels! W. warm not much wind.

22 Thursday: We cut milomaize seed. The Bridge’s Sarah (maybe) left today. Papa and Mama, Louise & W drove to Knippa’s. W. warm.

23 Friday: We cut milomaize seed. Killed 5 ground squirrels. W. warm & windy.

24 Saturday: Papa, A & Louise brought Lilly to Sabinal. She is to go to Yoakum via Harwood & Gonzales. $13.05. (Lilly will attend school for 9 months while living with the Fouts). W. warm & windy. Fencing & Croquet Guides came today. 3 “Worlds”.

25 Sunday: Papa and I drove to Heintz and Mr. Tampke, 3 miles this side of Utopia. The distance from here to Mr. Tampke is about 25 miles. We bought $2.00 of peaches (3 bushels) at Heintzes and slept at Tampke’s. Weather was warm & cloudy. Shot 1 muley. (Conrad’s map with additions.)

26 Monday: We started out early from Mr. T. and drove homewards, picking winter-grapes by the way. We reached home at about 3 o’clock. Mountain grapes are ripe in the Canyons. The mountains are picturesque but the valley is fertile, though stormy.

27 Tuesday: We canned 23 mason fruit jars full of peaches. Papa rode off in the afternoon to the Blanco Canons to buy some pigs from Mr. Santleben. W. warm & windy.

28 Wednesday: We cut 12 sacks of milomaize seed. Late at night, Papa came back from the Blanks. Warm.

29 Thursday: I rode to Sabinal. Had a letter from Lilly dated 25 Aug. from Gonzales and a postal card from Uncle Henry (Franke, Anna’ brother) dated 26 at Yoakum, both stating that Lilly had arrived there on the 24 and 26 of August. Letter from McNee Ian of Denison.

30 Friday: We cut m-s. It rained a little.

31 Saturday: It rained 1 inch. One year ago yesterday was the great flood in Uvalde. Planted Bermuda. Fixed pig-pen. Dug cellar.

1 (September) Sunday: P & I drove at 12 o’clock to the Blanco Canons. We staid at Mr. Charles Peters.(Blanco Canons must be around Uvalde as that is where the Peters’ farm was located.) W. threatening. Mr. Peters has some fine peaches and plum trees. Almost anything can be raised up there.

2 Monday: P & I drove to Mr. Anthon & Santleben(John & Louisa) Willie S.(son) and I picked a bucket-full of winter-grapes and 3 quarts of cherries. Mr. Santleben weighed the sow; weighed 125 lbs at 4 cents = $5.00. Then P & I drove to Mr. Anthon again & weighed 2 pigs; one 46 and the other 48 = 94lbs at 4 cents = $3.75. It was nearly dark when we left Anthons farm. We cut one fine cedar of which I want to make a “turn-stange” (Either turn rod or if türstange, then door rod.) We got home at about 2 o’clock. In the Blanco canons there are some cherry-trees and red-bush-trees 20-30 feet high. Cedar brakes are so big and close that one can hardly ride through them. I would like to know how many thousand carloads of cedarposts are up there yet. Many wintergrapes. At one place near Mr. Peters there is a stream of water coming out between the rocks as thick as a man’s leg. Several smaller streams are near the big spring. We had to cross the Blanco 14 times in going to Mr. Santleben’s and crossed the Hackberry 7 times. W. looked like rain. cloudy.

3 Tuesday: Fixed the pens for the new pigs. Cut milo-seed. W. warm.

4 Wednesday: I rode to Sabinal. Mailed a batch of circulars to Denison & Whitesborough merchants. Dug on cellar. Aug. 28 & 30 “W” (World Magazine) missing.

5 Thursday: My 16th Birthday. I got a saddle-cloth, mule-rabbits-hunting-bag, shirts & pants. Henry tumbled from the wagon as per drawings (over).

6 Friday: We hauled 2 loads of corn from the field. Irrigated. Filled hole near the trough nearly full of gravel and earth. W. warm.

7 Saturday: P & H drove to Sabinal. Got some lime for the fleas. Louis and I picked cotton. W. rather cooler than usual.

8 Sunday: P & M except H and I drove to Finch’s. George and Charles Kessler came over. We played table croquet. George ?, Henry 0, Charles 1, I 3.

9 Monday: We nailed boards and barrel-staves around our house to keep the chickens from getting too many fleas. I rode to Dry Frio Bridge to see if there were any fish there. W. warm.

10 Tuesday: P & I cut milo maize seed. We got a load of corn from the field. W. very warm.

11 Wednesday: I rode to Sabinal. Afterwards I rode down the Uvalde road to the “Model Apiary” and then to The Little Prairie. There I found King and drove him home. Once he sidled and beat me back, but after I got him over the railroad he went well. Henry lazy.

12 Thursday: We cut the last milo maize seed of the first crop down. Hurrah. Papa worked on the cellar-steps. W. warm and little wind.

13 Friday: H & I rode to Umlang’s and got Jumbo back. They had put him in the back pasture. We fixed the gate a little. P.M. We cut sugarcane seed. W. warm.

14 of S. Saturday: P drove to Sabinal. We gathered 5 gallons of pecans from the “Bank Tree” and “Baby Tree”. W. warm.

15 of S. Sunday: H & I went over to Kessler’s in the afternoon. We played baseball: George, Oscar, Henry. 17 rounds. Charles, Lawrence & I 14 rounds. W. warm.

16 of S. Monday: Blue Monday – Papa worked on cellar and finished the cellar-stairs. H & I cut sugar cane seed. PM (evening): P, H and I selected 20 dozen of June-corn – roasting-ears which we will take to Uvalde tomorrow. Ali and Billy ate some of it out of the wagon. I bathed in cold water. Weather is sultry and hot. Looks like rain.

17 of S. Tuesday; P & I drove to Uvalde and sold 18 doz. of roasting-ears to the people. We realized $2.65 on it. The butter could not be sold. I selected a fine Spalding no. 53 Base Ball Bat for 15 cents. Henry paid 5 and I 10 cents. We gave 7 ears of the June corn to Editor Barnhill of the News. Mr. Funk owes us $10.90 to our credit. Took out Bread 5 cts, Apples 15 cts leaves $10.70 to our credit. We got home late. I sold 10 cts. worth of Whisky bottles.

18 Wednesday: We loaded up some roasting-ears and 4 melons, Home at 11 o’clock P & H drove to Sabinal. They sold the 22 doz. roasting-ears for $2.90 the melons for $.30. Received word from Lilly, she has been promoted from the 1st to second grade(She is 12!). Letters from Mr. S. S. Allen, Hot Springs, Ark. enclosed $8.80 for 10 1 gal. comb honey.

Mr. Brockenbrough, Waco Tex. said he sold 2 cans of our honey.
Mrs. Fouts, Gonzales Tex. said a baby boy has come.
Mr. Louis Brandes Detmold Sam? said honey is worth 24 mark for 100 kg. Enclosed stamp. (May be from Germany.)
Miss Anna Perlitz San Antonio, Tex. about the butter. Mr. Mackensen enclosed some fine stamps. Paper from the “World” had something from “Cowboy”, Texas, in the Checker Column.

19 Thursday: Mr. Wiebush, the soldering man came yesterday afternoon. He worked all day on broken tinware. I made a baseball ground yesterday. Papa worked on the cellar-door. H & I rode to Elliott Pecan Trees west of Umlangs, and gathered about 3 gallons of pecans. Weather windy, cool. I must go to bed.

20 Friday: P & I drove to Uvalde. We sold $4.70 worth of roasting-ears; $1.25 is due us. We have $ 10.70 credit at Funks; bought lye .50, axe-handles .20 and wash-board .25 leaves $9.75. We bought a butter-bucket for 40 cents.

There was big fire in the Windmill ranch yesterday. It ran nearly through Frey’s land. W. awful dusty and warm.

21 Saturday: P & I drove to Sabinal. We sold $2.40 worth of roasting-ears 1.45 cents is due us. We got 2 letters asking about bulls. Dolch Hotel (in Eagle Pass, TX) sent $4.80 for 1 case Honey (120 lbs.). C. M. Bigelow sent $7.80 for one case Honey (120 lbs.). I got a letter from Dr. J. J. Fouts. The Wednesday “World” of September 18 is missing.

22 Sunday: H & I rode down to Sec. H 96. Mr. Ohlson bought two melons from me for $.20 cents. I took 40 ears of corn to him. After dinner we went over to Kessler’s with Umlangs boys and played baseball. S K. H S. C U. & O K. made 10 rounds and C.K, C.S, L.K, & O.U, made 11 rounds. Kesslers drove out to their Liaycamp(?).

23 Monday: H & I got melons from the field by taking them on horseback to here. I want to take some melons to Sabinal tomorrow. I shot at an owl this evening but missed it. Papa heated 2 cases of honey which we will take to Sabinal tomorrow. One goes to Dolch Hotel Eagle Pass and the other to C.M. Bigelow Aransas Pass Texas.
A fine 2 inch rain fell last night. W. cool and windy.

24 Tuesday: Alma and I drove to Sabinal. We sold $1.30 roasting-ears, $.90 melons. Had 4 rings put on the wagon axles by More (In 1910, the census lists a Mexican saddler named More). 3 iron bolts were also made for holding the wagon together. We owe now 35 cents. The missing World of Sept. 18 came to hand. Letter from Dr. Fouts and postal card from Kelley.

25 Wednesday? Louise & I drove to Sec. 96 and sold 3 bu. of corn, 123 roasting-ears and 57 lbs Honey, all for $5.45. We got one load of corn from the field. Exciting races after mice. Taken from memory. (“Ich hab ihn schurke., I have you scoundrel.)
$15.65 roasting ears.
1-30 Sabinal

26 Thursday: Papa sowed oats in the garden. I plowed it in. In the afternoon Papa plowed in the sweet corn patch in the field. We gathered 16 doz. of roasting-ears. W. cool.

27 Friday: A fine 1 inch rain fell last night. Yesterday evening there was lightning in the N-W and N-E. Dark clouds came from the North. Rain began at midnight and continued until morning. L, L and I drove to Sec. 96 and sold $1.00 worth of roasting ears. 120 ears. In the afternoon P H and I pulled out rag-weed in the June corn field. Here is a problem in checkers that I composed this evening.



28 Saturday: I rode to Sabinal. Got 2 Worlds, one with the Hidden Mine story was very interesting. When I came back, Henry rode to Kessler’s and took 30 roasting-ears along. P & Henry cleaned up the cowpen and shoveled all the manure on four piles. It is raining now. W. was cloudy, threatening & cool.

29 Sunday: A fine 2 inch rain fell last night and this morning. I wrote one letter for Jim Elliot and one for Dr. J. J Fouts. H & I played one game of table-croquet. I won it. We doctored Filly; he had a cut on the breast with 10 worms in it. I fixed up a jumping apparatus. My best jump was 3 feet 6 inches.(Likely a standing jump.) A little duck was in the cowpen. W. cold, cloudy.

30 Monday: P rode to Kelley’s to talk about selling him the bull of Lida. H A L & L and I went to the Frio Pecan tree and got a few pecans. Then I went on alone to get some pecans from the Flat trees. On the way I went to the Red Frio bank. I found a hole in the side of the bank with 5 young Red Owls in it. I fished them out and put 3 in a sack and carried 2. Then I went home with the owls. They can fly, I think, but are little fellows. I put them in the chicken house that Lilly made.

1 October: P rode to Sabinal & (the) Braden’s. H & I put up the empty beehives in the yards and cut the last sugar-cane seed. George Kessler came and borrowed our harrow. He took 42 r-e (roasting ears) along. After dinner we brought the harrow back. I jumped 3 feet and 8 inches, breaking my Sunday record.

2 October: H & I drove to Sabinal. We sold $1.30 r-e and $.30 melons. I bought $.1 oiler, $.15 apples, $.10 shot and $.10 powder. We got home late. W. cool.

3 October: I went hunting this morning. I shot one hawk while he was flying. I missed 2 other hawks twice. We looked at the bees and took 2 loads of manure to the field. It is getting cooler, black birds are here in swarms. coyotes are having nightly dance accompanied by music, and flocks of hawks have made their appearances. I will go for the hawks. Today I put m. (mule-rabbit) 1 on the ground. W. cool & a little now.

4 October: We worked among the bees. After dinner I rode on Ali to the wind mill tank. I had the shotgun and 8 cartridges along. The 8th mule rabbit that I saw carried one duck-shot-charge away with him. Probably he will die. The 9th m (mule-rabbit) got 2 charges, both hit him. He ran into some bushes and I found him dead afterwards. The 14th m (mule-rabbit) got one charge in the head. I got him, too. Then I rode home. I saw a skunker but did not shoot. When I got home, I gave one m- (mule rabbit) to the little tootzees (baby owls) who were much elated over him. They will finish him up this night, I think. Papa put some poison in the other m- and tied him to the posts. If Mr. Chicken-Catcher Coyote will find the m- (mule-rabbit), he will doubtless have some belly-ache tonight. Mr. C.C. Coyote stole the poor Frey’s hen this morning and so the 6 little chicks are orphans now.
With best wishes for Mr. C.C. C’s speedy death. I remain. Conrad Schnddemargen
W. cool & cloudy.

5 October. Saturday: I rode to Sabinal. George Kessler was there. He had a bale of cotton ginned. I waited till it was ready and went home with George. A special train of soldiers came through. A special train of eight cars of the soldier’s horses went through before it. The soldiers ate dinner in Sabinal. One got drunk and the others could hardly get him on the train. Cotton sells at 8.55 cents a lb. Got letters from Kelley, C. H. Faires and House of Chicago. W. Cool.

6 Sunday: I found out that Louise had let one owl fly out. I hunted for it but could not find it. In the P.M. all except H and I drove to Kesslers. S C O and L Kessler came over and we played baseball. We saw the little owl sitting in the hackberry tree but I could not catch her. George and I jumped 7 ½ feet standing. W. cool, little wind.

7 Monday: A fine 1 ½ rain fell last night. P. H and I took Lida bull to Kelleys. We ate dinner at Wish’s. Got check for $22.50. Got some pecans from Blanco trees. W. cool.

8 Tuesday: We wrote down what we wanted of Montgomery Ward & Co.

9 Wednesday: Pa rode to Sabinal. Sent off a batch of 70 circulars to El Paso, Torney, Decatur. We picked cotton and cleaned up one shock of corn. I shot No. 1 Owl with the second shot of Major. Missed another owl. W. cool.

10 Thursday: We picked cotton. Henry was pitched. I shot no. 2 Hawk with one shot. W. cool & windy.




11 Friday: I wrote down addresses. In the evening I rode down to Sec. 96 and sold Mr. Ohlson 5 lbs butter for $1.17. Then I rode to Chatfield and mailed a letter. I ate supper at Ohlson’s. W. warm.

12 Saturday: Papa drove to Sabinal. I wrote down addresses from T.S.S. & B.S.

13 Sunday: P H Louis and I drove up to the Blanco and got some wintergrapes and Black walnuts. Saw 2 bee caves in a bluff. Killed one rattler. Got home late.

14 Monday: Picked the wintergrapes. H and I got one load corn and ???? loads fodder.

15 Tuesday: P and I drove down to Chapman’s auction sale on the Frio 15 miles from us. We bought 2 rockers, 1 stool and 1 baby stool for 45 cents and 6 buckets for 15 cents. Papa shot one cliff squirrel and I shot one g-s (ground squirrel). Little 22 was the weapon.

16 Wednesday: Henry rode to Sabinal. I got a letter from Mr. Mink of the S. P. J. P. M. about my tootzees(baby owls). I mowed down part of the milomaize. Mr. Wiebush came over from Fuchs.

17 Thursday: Mr. Wiebush came yesterday I mowed down all of our milomaize and all of our sugar cane. I caught a little cottontail. W. warm little wind.

18 Friday: Mr. Wiebush went off. He helped Papa put a good lid on the milk cooler. We mowed down some grass in the hay pasture. W. warm little wind.

19 Saturday: We mowed and raked grass in hay pasture. I caught another cottontail (rabbit). W. warm. This morning we drove 23 head of cattle to Frey’s tank. Today the windmill had to be hauled in.

20 Sunday: Mama and I made a baseball with the tanned cliff squirrel hide as cover. Mr. Fuchs and Mr. John Knippa came. I shot at a hawk, but missed. Then I shot at blackbirds on the fence. 15 tumbled. H and I went to Kesslers and played baseball. Charley 10 rounds, George 9, Henry 7, Oscar 7, I 4 and Lawrence 3.

21 Monday: I rode to Sabinal. I helped Henry drive 23 cattle to Frey’s tank first. I sent-off order to $22.50 worth of goods to Montg. Ward & Co. Saw my story printed in Texas Farm & Ranch. Leon Martinez, his cousin and wife came. They will cut and shock the June corn for $6. P mowed sorghum.

22 Tuesday: We put 2 loads of hay on the stack. I raked one in and P mowed sorghum. W. warm and windy.

23 Wednesday: I shot a hawk with 1 sgs (shot gun shell). We put 2 loads of hay on the stack. In the afternoon we helped the Mexicans shocking.

24 Thursday: We set up a lot of shocks June corn. Oscar came and got harness to got to Sabinal. We finished the hay stack. I raked the sorghum in the East field.

25 Friday: We finished the June corn shocks. The Mexican and I put 4 loads of milomaize on a stack. Killed 2 rattlers who were in the m-m (milomaize) piles. Papa & H got 2 loads of corn from the field. The Mexicans left us this evening. Leon Martinez got $1.80 and Geromino Bela $2.25. Owls got about 23 mice. (Mice killed in given to baby owls.) The little cottontail is all right. Cat got one of my 2 cottontails and I had to kill it. Weather, warm no wind.

26 Saturday: We put 4 loads of milomaize fodder on the stack. Henry tumbled off from wagon. (see picture)

27 Sunday: Oscar came and stayed all day long. We played baseball and slung stones after blackbirds. I shot at a hawk but missed. I doctored Uka’s and Candy’s worms (Could be horses , dogs or cows). W. cool and cloudy.

28 Monday: Henry rode to Sabinal. He came home late. P and I put 1 load of m-m and 2 of sorghum on 3rd stack. W. drizzly rain.

29 Tuesday: We put one load of sorghum 3rd stack. Put 2 loads of hay on 2nd stack. W. very drizzly rainy and cold.

30 Wednesday: We hauled manure to the field. W. cool.

31 Thursday: We hauled sorghum to the stack. W. cold. Killed 1 rattler.

1 (November) Friday: We hauled 3 loads of sorghum to the stack. After dinner we broke “Filly.” I rode him. W. cold.

2 Saturday: I drove to Sabinal. Exchanged corn. Braden paid up and we paid K (Kelley) & McB up. Big mail.

3 Sunday: I rode to the Sec. House and sold two melons for $.20. C L & S Kessler came and we played baseball.

4 Monday: Hauled sorghum to 4th stack. Papa rode-on Billy to Sabinal to send off 10 lbs butter to 111 Ogden St. San Antonio(Mackensons). W. drizzle rainy.

5 Tuesday: Hauled manure. Set out cabbage plants. I mended Saddles and Harness. W. Drizzly rainy & cool.

6 Wednesday: Hauled manure. Broke corn. W. drizzle-rainy.

7 Thursday. We planted some rye. Weather drizzle-rainy.

8 Friday: We planted some rye. I shot one big hornowl with one shot. W. drizzly

9 Saturday: 2 inches rain fell last night. I fixed the calf-pasture-fence. W. drizzly.

10 Sunday: I rode to Sabinal and got a big mail. I stayed at Fuchs a little. W. clear and cool.

11 Monday: I mowed some grass. We got 1 load of corn and one of fodder from the field. W. cool.

12 Tuesday: We broke “Filly”. I rode on him and was pitched off twice. W. drizzly and cool.

13 Wednesday: Papa and I drove to Uvalde. I sold 15 lbs butter for $3.00. We had $9.75 at Funks; took sack (100 lbs) flour $2.15, sausage .10, apples .10 and bread .05 = $2.40 ($9.75-$2.40 = $7.35 on our side). I bought Bristol board 4 sheets for $.30 at New Office. We came to Uvalde at 1 o’clock and left at 5:10 o’c. Road muddy. W. warm.

14 Thursday: I mowed sorghum. We slaughtered the Kessler-pig. 102 lbs. I made a megaphone out of the Bristol boards. A hawk sat on a dry hackberry in the Frio. I shot 4 times with the “22”, then Papa came and shot at him once and made some feathers fly. F-jah-ack! W. warm & sunny.

15 Friday: P M Louise Emil and Walter drove to Knippa’s. Henry and I mowed down the rest of the sorghum in the West field. When we neared the ‘finis’ we scored 5 out of 9 young rabbits, and a dead polecat. W. fine sunny.

16 Saturday: Papa and I drove to Sabinal. No fight for us. Had some corn exchanged for meal. Had some letters and 3 “Worlds”. Henry got Jumbo, Zottelbaer and Duke back from Rhein ranch. W. was fine and cool.

17 Sunday: When in Sabinal yesterday we learned that Mr. Jas Braden had been hunting and was kicked by his horse; his right foot was broken. The horse ran home and Braden had to crawl home. He was out a night and a half day having crawled 3 miles some one found him at 2 o’clock P.M. Nov. 9. He crawled in this manner. Lying on the back with head homewards he pushed himself backwards with the left foot. This is about the case as Mr. Dicky (D.) who broke a foot in the wheel of a cultivator, his mule running away. His foot was taken off.
Henry, Louis and I went to Kesslers and played baseball. G.K. made 2 rounds, I 4, L.K. 11, H.S. 9 and O.K. 5. A big crowd was at Kessler’s. Talks of making irrigation ditches and building up Chatfield are frequent. W. fair.

18 Monday: Papa rode to Uvalde. We picked cotton. W. sunny & fair.

19 Tuesday: Papa heated honey. I raked sorghum, Henry raked hay. W. sunny.

20 Wednesday: Papa drove to Sabinal. The freight from Montgomery Ward & Co. was there. Freight was $1.80 on 130 lbs. We picked cotton. I grubbed a little piece of land which I want to cultivate next year. Here is a list of things from Montgomery Ward & Co.:

59½ yds Gingham 5 ¾ 3.42
10ydsQuting Flannel6.60
1doz. Tablets.65
1prSuspenders .25
3Metallic Combs.12
1Comb (fine).10
1 cakeShaving Soap.04
1BoxCastile Soap.50
¼ Gross Steel Pens.25
1 Doz.Lead Pencils.03
3Doz.Slate Pencils.21
1BoxFountain Pen & Ink.20
1Chime Toy.10
1Chime Ball.18
1Thermometer 1st $6.12 2nd $9.50.35
1Hat Broncho1.00
1Doz. Socks 3rd 11.25.20
1Doz. Socks.85
1Doz. Socks1.10
2 Breast Straps for Neck Yoke1.24
2pr. Ladies Grain Slipper 4 ch 14.641.70
1 Carpenters Drawing Knife.48
1Carpenters Pincers 12 in.35
2 Comb. Hasp and Padlock.50
1Gate Latch.10
1 Box Pinfire Paper Shells.70
2Boxes Cartridges 22. Cal.24
1Chicago Air rifle.85
5 lbs. B.B. Shot for C & R..40
3Snip Snaps.24
1Pump Leather 3½ in diameters.15
1Box 250 Gun Wads 16 Gauge.14
6th 20.92
Putty (in bladder) 12 lbs..36
Axle Grease (Bucket) 10 lbs..40
7th $21.68
2Malleable End Clevises.08
1Neck Yoke Center.29
Pocket Knife (To. Bal.) Whew!.90
8th $22.95
Cat & Sample Shirting22.95
2 % off.46
$ 22.49

I write with Fountain pen bought in above list. The things came all O.K. Everything is good, and cheaper than can be got here.
(Shudde Bess Bryson Fath, Lily’s daughter, says Lily did all or most of the sewing for the family, dresses, petticoats, aprons, nightgowns, underwear, shirts, pajamas, shorts, sheets and pillowcases. This explains the 112 yds of material and additional shirting.)

Conrad is keeping track of his ammunition and hunting success:
Air Rifle: 3 blackbirds,
1 b (bullet) 1 d.. (dove)
2 f (field larks)- 1 woodpecker

21 Thursday: We hauled 3 loads sorghum to 5th stack. The things from M. W. & Co all good. I tested my air rifle and it is a good shooter. Killed 3 blackbirds. W. good.

22 Friday: We hauled 4½ loads sorghum to 5th Stack. W. was very drizzly and rainy.

23 Saturday: Papa rode to Uvalde. We hauled corn home. Killed 1 dove & 1 blackbird. It rained about 1½ inches last night. W. drizzly.

24 Sunday: I had a “round up” among my things. Killed one woodpecker and 2 field larks. 3.15 P.M. I rode to Kessler’s and then to Fuchs. Road was terrible as it rained 2 inches last night. W. cold and drizzly.

25 Monday: Whew! What a stormy and cold day this is. Therm. 45 deg. I am sick in the stomach. I learned Spanish. We picked all the tomatoes off from our 4 rows and hung a lot of plants in the cellar to ripen. They would make about 20 buckets without counting those that we ate already. W. cold.
Air Rifle: 5 b- 1 cottontail,
2 b- Hawk
1 b- air
3 mice- trap
1 b- 1 m-?
3 b- 1 field lark
1 b-

26 Tuesday: Papa rode to Uvalde. We got corn from the field. W. cold.

27 Wednesday: Papa came back from Uvalde after dinner. We got corn from the field. W. cold & drizzly.

28 Thursday: We got corn from the field. W. warmer.

29 Friday: Papa rode to Sabinal. We picked cotton. A hawk caught a rabbit and Henry got the shotgun from home. Hawk was in the sorghum and I scared him up 4 times, shooting at him when he flew up for the 4th time but missed. W. warm.

30 Saturday: We stacked 2 loads of sorghum and 1 of hay. W. drizzly.

1 (December) Sunday: I rode to Sec. 96 and sold 1 lb. wax .20 and 1 lb butter, then I lost a nickel through a pockethole. After dinner Law. & Oscar K. came and we played batting ball. Score: H.S. 0, O.K. 1, L.K. 1, C.S. 2. W. warm fine.
Batting ball is played thus: 200 paces are measured off and from 80 steps from line one side bats the ball towards the opposite side which the goal. Then side 2 bats and sp?.

X2 Monday: I mowed down part of the sorghum in the East field. W. warm.

Xx3 Tuesday: Papa and I drove to Uvalde. We took 10 bushels of corn along for Mr. Hueberlein at 35 cents a bushel. I sold $2.25 worth of butter (9 lbs.) and P sold 1 lb. (20 cents)
Account with Funks. $7.25-Flour $2.15 apples .15=$.95. Saw a deer in Elliot’s pasture.
X4 Wednesday: We broke two shocks of June corn. Killed Santleben sow. She weighed 285 lbs. W. cool
X5 Thursday: Henry rode to Sabinal. Letter from Thompson of Houston and Texas Seed Co. of Dallas. I raked the sorghum. W. cold.
X6 Friday: We got one load of June corn from the field and shucked it. 2 loads sorghum to 6th. W. fine
X7 Saturday: We got one load of June corn from the field and shucked it. 1 load m-m for 7th and 1 load corn from the field. W. fine.
Last night I set one of my two traps near the bees. This morning a 25 lb. wildcat (bobtail) was in it. The bait was the stomach of Santleben’s sow



Shuddemagen Family ca 1898, about 2-3 years after the diary. Conrad not in picture.
Louise (1890-1987) , Lily (1883-1983), Anna Franke (1857-1944), Alma (1888-1976), Walter (1895-1990), John Alexander (1852-1942), Emil (1893-1987) Louis (1890-1983), Henry (1885-1970)

Shuddemagen Family, ca 1898
Back Row: Emil (1893-1987) Alma (1888-1976)
Middle Long Row: Louis (1890-1983), Louise (1890-1987), John Alexander (1852-1942), Anna Franke (1857-1944), Lily (1883-1983), Henry (1885-1970)
Front Row: Walter (1895-1990)

Some of the siblings 52 years after the diary.

L to R: Louis and Jessie Shudde, Gordon & Lilly Shudde Bryson, Emil and Alma Jane Shudde, Aronold & Alma Shudde Kellerberger.

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